Types of incidents
An incident type is defined as the nature/dimension of violations reported in a single incident. A single incident may contain more than one incident type.
Property damage or destruction—breaking and entering, vandalism or any other form of attack on the property of an individual, institution or group.
Physical violence—violence of any form against a person or group of persons including but not limited to assault, abduction, rape, or murder.
Hate campaign or propaganda—includes any published materials/dissemination of materials, meetings, rallies or print, electronic or social media which have express messages attacking or inciting feelings against a religion, religious practice, religious symbolism, places of religious worship, religious community or followers of a religion based on their religious affiliation.
Threats or intimidation or coercion—any verbal threats, phone calls, false allegations, forcible entry (where there is no damage to property), aggressive behaviour, or direct encounters which do not result in violent acts against person or property, but where there is a threat of force or a forcing of person/s to perform any action against their will. Incidents where religious leaders and individuals demand the cessation of religious activities and declare places of worship illegal are also included in this category.
Discriminatory action or practice—any form of discrimination on religious grounds (including by State and non-State actors); including but not limited to denying or limiting services, termination of employment due to religious affiliations, denying or limiting access through differential treatment in particular instances or a sustained policy/practice of differential treatment, and opposition to burials in public cemeteries due to the deceased’s religious affiliation or burial rites to be performed. State imposed laws, policies, or regulations intended to broadly limit religious freedom, and legal challenges or litigation on the grounds of religious affiliation fall within this category; as well as the denial of building permits and incidents relating to construction and land matters.
A single incident may include more than one category of perpetrator. A perpetrator is defined as any party actively or implicitly involved in the perpetration of the incident.
Unidentified individual or group—this category includes those perpetrators whose identities or affiliations are unknown or unclear. For the purposes of this documentation, “identity” is determined when the name or locality or affiliation to an organised group/institution or religion or ethnicity of the perpetrator(s) are known. All criteria do not need to be met.
Identifiable individual(s)—includes an individual or a group of individuals whose identities or affiliations are known or clear. This category includes only lay persons. For the purposes of this documentation, “identity” is determined when the name or locality or affiliation to an organised group/institution or religion, ethnicity of the perpetrator(s) are known. All criteria do not need to be met.
Public institution or public servant—the perpetrator(s) concerned have a legal affiliation to a government body (e.g. government-run school, government administrator). Incidents involving such persons will be classified when the perpetrator is acting in his/her official capacity.
Religious institution or clergy—a member of a religious order, a place of worship, or a religious institution (e.g. religious education institute, a welfare institute affiliated to a religion).
Commercial interest group or private sector firm or non-governmental organisation—private sector firm, business association or any other entity involved in any form of commercial or not-for-profit activity.
Political/social organisation—refers to all groups that identify themselves by a name or political figures. Groups such as the Bodu Bala Sena (BBS) are included in this category.
Perpetrator’s religious affiliation
This classification is noted if the group or individual either self-identifies or has an unambiguously determinable religious identity; otherwise classified as unknown.
The main target groups within each incident are broadly classified into six categories of potential targets, and each incident may include more than one target group. The targets are categorised as:
Individual(s)—includes an individual or a group of individuals (e.g. one member of a religious group or the congregation of a religious place of worship). This category includes only lay persons.
Local community—this category could include all religious minority households in a village or an entire sect of religious minorities being targeted.
Place of worship or religious worship activity—location (church/kovil/temple/mosque/residence) where religious gatherings are held, or processional religious ceremonies, or funeral services at cemeteries.
Business—an enterprise owned by a member of a religious minority
Wider community—many or all categories targeted at once, or religious minorities targeted at a national level.
Institutions, clergy, officials or public figures—priests, religious leaders, or religious organisations or other public figures belonging to religious minority groups.